The Islamic calendar is Lunar Calendar . Each month must begins in the evening sighting of the new moon with the naked eye. The lunar calendar is about 11 days shorter than the solar calendar used elsewhere. Muslims are obligated to sight the crescent in every country.
The first year was the year during which the emigration of the Islamic prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, known as the Hijrah, occurred.
Different countries may begin the year at different days based on their own sightings. The calendar is called Hijri calendar. The Arabic word Hijrah means emigration.
The twelve Islamic Months are as follows :
Tarawih is an Arabic phrase which refers to the extra prayers given by Sunni Muslims at night in the Islamic month of Ramzan. Tarawih prayers are prayed in pairs of two and can be prayed in at least 20 raka'ahs according to the three major schools (Hanafis, Shafi'i, Hanbali) of Sunni Islam, and at most 36 or 38 according to the Maliki School. This prayer is performed only during Ramzan of the Islamic Calendar after salah of Isha'a. Sunni Muslims believe it is expected to attempt a 'khatm' (complete recitation) of the Qur'an in Ramzan by reciting at least one juz per night in tarawih. If someone does not know how to read Qur'an or cannot read it very well, they may recite Surahs that they know. Tarawih prayers are considered optional and not mandatory.
Iftar is refered to as an evening meal (Breakfast) when Muslims break their fast during the Islamic month of Ramzan. During Iftar Muslims gather together in communities to break their fast. Iftar is done right after sunset. Iftar usually begins with dates and sweet drinks that provide a quick energy boost.
Sahur is an Arabic term referred to the meal consumed early in the morning by Muslims before fasting in daylight hours during the Islamic month of Ramzan. Sahur as the morning meal and is matched by Iftar as the evening meal, during Ramzan, replacing the traditional three meals a day. Sahur typically tends to be heavy and is highly regarded by Islamic traditions to avoid the weakness caused by the fast. Some people also suggest not going right back to sleep after Sahur.
Fajr is an Arabic term meaning Dawn. Fajr prayer is the first of the five daily prayers recited by Muslims. The Fajr prayer is mentioned by name in the Qur'an at 24:58. The time period within which the Fajr daily prayer must be recited is from the beginning of dawn to sunrise. The call to Fajr prayer marks the beginning of the mandatory, daily fasting during the Muslim holy month of Ramzan. The Quran relates a surah by the same name. Fajr prayer is explained as being God's most-favored prayer since others are asleep.
Magrib is a prayer, prayed just after sunset. It is the fourth prayer of the daily five prayers offered by the Muslims. The Maghrib prayer has three mandatory (fard) rak'at. The first two fard rak'at are prayed aloud, and the third is prayed silently.